Technical Library

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    EN 15732:2012 / CEN/TC 88 - Thermal insulating materials and products Read more +

  • This standard describes the product characteristics and includes procedures for testing, marking and labelling. This European Standard specifies the requirements for loose-fill expanded clay lightweight aggregate (expanded clay LWA) products for Civil Engineering Applications excluding the use as thermal insulation in and under buildings which are covered by EN 14063-1. The standard covers the use of expanded clay LWA as lightweight fill and insulation materials in embankments for roads, railways and other trafficked areas and as lightweight backfill for structures. This standard does not specify the required level of a given property to be achieved by a product to demonstrate fitness for purpose in a particular application. The levels required for a given application are to be found in regulations or non-conflicting standards.

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    Expanded clay LWA in CEA: Lightweight fill and thermal insulation products for civil engineering applications. Installation and structural quality control on site. Read more +

  • This Technical report was prepared by EXCA, the European Expanded Clay Association, in 2007 and revised in 2015. The goal and purpose has been to present the current best practice and recommendations on the European level concerning proper construction works and in-situ quality control to ensure a correct and proper execution of civil engineering applications of Expanded Clay lightweight aggregates. The basic material properties shall be documented and declared according to EN 15732 Light weight fill and thermal insulation products for civil engineering applications (CEA). Expanded clay lightweight aggregate products (LWA). This technical report is acknowledged by all the major partners in the European Expanded Clay industry, and thus should be considered as a recommendation from the industry. This report provides general recommendations prepared by the EXCA-industry and has no legal status. National standards, recommendations, instructions and guidance given in the specific projects have to be followed.

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    EN 14063-2:2013, Thermal insulation products for buildings - In-situ formed expanded clay lightweight aggregate products - Part 2: Specification for the installed products. Read more +

  • This European Standard specifies the requirements for loose-fill expanded clay lightweight aggregate (LWA) products installed in roofs, ceilings, floors and ground floors. This Part 2 is a specification for the installed product. Part 2 of this European Standard describes, when taken together with Part 1, the product characteristics that are linked to the essential requirements of the EU Construction Products Directive. Part 2 also specifies the checks and tests to be used for the declarations made by the installer of the product. Part 2 of this European Standard does not specify the required level of a given property to be achieved by a product to demonstrate fitness for purpose in a particular application. The levels required for a given application are to be found in national regulations or non conflicting standards. This European Standard does not cover factory made expanded clay lightweight aggregate products or in-situ products intended to be used for the insulation of building equipment and industrial installations. This European Standard does not specify performance requirements for airborne sound insulation and for acoustic absorption applications.

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    EN 14063-1:2004, Thermal insulation products for buildings - In-situ formed expanded clay lightweight aggregate products - Part 1: Specification for the loose-fill products before installation. Read more +

  • This European Standard specifies the requirements for loose-fill expanded clay lightweight aggregate products for in-situ installation in roofs, ceilings, floors and ground floors. This Part 1 of the standard is a specification for the insulation products before installation. This Part 1 of the standard also describes the product characteristics and includes procedures for testing, marking and labelling. This standard does not specify the required level of a given property to be achieved by a product to demonstrate fitness for purpose in a particular application. The levels required for a given application are to be found in regulations or non-conflicting standards. This standard does not specify performance requirements for airborne sound insulation and for acoustic absorption applications.

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    EN 1997-1:2004, Eurocode 7: Geotechnical design - Part 1: General rules. Read more +

  • EN 1997 Eurocode 7 shall be applied to the geotechnical aspects OF the design of buildings and other civil engineering works and shall be used in conjunction with EN 1990:2002 that establishes the principles and requirements for safety and serviceability, describes the basis of design and verification and gives guidelines for related aspects of structural reliability. Numerical values of actions on buildings and other civil engineering works to be taken into account in design are provided in EN 1991 for the various types of construction, whereas actions imposed by the ground, such as earth pressures and by ground water, shall be calculated according to the rules of EN 1997. Separate European Standards shall be used to treat matters of execution and workmanship. In EN 1997 execution is covered to the extent that is necessary to comply with the assumptions of the design rules. EN 1997 does not cover the special requirements of seismic design. EN 1998 provides additional rules for geotechnical seismic design, which complete or adapt the rules of this Standard.

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    EN 1997-2:2007, Eurocode 7: Geotechnical design - Part 2: Ground investigation and testing. Read more +

  • EN 1997 Eurocode 7 shall be applied to the geotechnical aspects OF the design of buildings and other civil engineering works and shall be used in conjunction with EN 1990:2002 that establishes the principles and requirements for safety and serviceability, describes the basis of design and verification and gives guidelines for related aspects of structural reliability. Numerical values of actions on buildings and other civil engineering works to be taken into account in design are provided in EN 1991 for the various types of construction, whereas actions imposed by the ground, such as earth pressures and by ground water, shall be calculated according to the rules of EN 1997. Separate European Standards shall be used to treat matters of execution and workmanship. In EN 1997 execution is covered to the extent that is necessary to comply with the assumptions of the design rules. EN 1997 does not cover the special requirements of seismic design. EN 1998 provides additional rules for geotechnical seismic design, which complete or adapt the rules of this Standard.

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    Calibration of the comprimeter for compaction control Read more +

  • Saint-Gobain Weber Portugal, S.A. and the National Laboratory for Civil Engineering (Laboratório Nacional de Engenharia Civil - LNEC) in cooperation with the Instituto Superior Técnico (IST), signed a protocol, in 18th of March of 2010, aiming the study of a control method of the construction of embankments with light expanded clay aggregates. A set of checking and calibration tests, at the laboratory, using the comprimeter, was defined for the evaluation of the compaction conditions of theses materials. This document presents the preparations conditions, the results and interpretation of the tests after the conclusion of the experimental program at the laboratory.

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    Geotechnical applications and mechanical characterization of expanded clay (in Italian). Read more +

  • This manual has been developed to give the geotechnical designer all the information necessary to design lightweight embankments with expanded clay. The first two chapters analyze the geotechnical characteristics of expanded clay; chapter 3 develops in detail the design of embankments on soft soil and sliding slopes lightened with expanded clay; the fourth chapter analyze the installation procedures and problems and finally the fifth and final chapter describe the methods to verify and test the quality standards of the instalment of the lightweight embankment.

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    LWA for roads and railways, Internordic research and development project Read more +

  • LWA geolight is an internordic project aiming at developing technical solutions for the use of light weight clay aggregate (LWA) for insulation and light weight fill in roads and railways. The project is performed with financial support from Nordic Industrial Fund. The project has been organised with national activities in Finland, Sweden and Norway on the topics LWA in combination with geosynthetic reinforcment, hydraulically stabilised LWA and mechanically stabilised LWA. Internordic working groups have been established on the topics surface icing, required properties and test methods, publication and implementation of results in CEN. The project includes laboratory testing, numerical analyses, model tests and field tests. It has provided data on characteristics of LWA, structural behaviour and relevant factors for the construction with LWA. A separat Nordtest project on required properties has been performed in close co-operation with the LWAgeolight project. The conclusions are incorporated and are also forwarded as basis for a new work item in CEN.

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    Seismic response of light embankments on soft soils (in Italian). Read more +

  • In the presence of layers of very unstable ground, characterized by high thicknesses, it is now common practice to build lightweight road embankments and / or compensate them by using expanded clay. This technique is used to reduce sagging, that is often experienced while carrying out the works, increasing the durability and reducing maintenance costs. This article will take into consideration the seismic response of compensated embankments and will discuss the factors that most influence it. We will use three different approaches: (i) the pseudo-static, (ii) the displacement method and (iii) it will also critically discuss the results of numerical analysis’ carried out by using a finite difference computer program.

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    Verification of gravity retaining walls in accordance with the seismic legislation (in Italian). Read more +

  • The geotechnical engineer is often looking for safety solutions for gravity retaining walls that are already in place, while also respecting the current seismic regulation (NTC 2008). The article demonstrates how the replacement of part of the backfill material with expanded clay, can be a winning solution. By using expanded clay we can reduce the pressure that the ground exerts on the retaining wall, prevents the build-up of pressure caused by water and allows structural verification even if the work is carried out in areas of high seismicity, as it significantly reduces the pseudo-static pressure. This one, in case of an earthquake, would load on the structure.

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