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    Accuracy of Energy Analysis of Buildings: A Comparison of a Monthly Energy Balance Method and Simulation Methods in Calculating the Energy Consumption and the Effect of Thermal Mass Read more +

  • The purpose of this article is to analyze the effects of thermal mass on heating and cooling energy in Nordic climate and for modern, well-insulated Nordic buildings. The effect of thermal mass is analyzed by calculations made by seven researchers and by seven different calculation programs. Six of these programs are simulation programs (Consolis Energy, IDA-ICE, SciaQPro, TASE, VIP, VTT House model) and one monthly energy balance method (maxit energy) based on the standard EN 832, which is the predecessor of ISO DIS 13790. It is purpose to evaluate the reliability of the monthly energy calculation method and especially its gain utilization factor compared with the simulation programs. In addition some sensitivity analysis concerning e.g., the effects of the size and the orientation of windows and the weather data on the energy consumption are made. The results show that the simplified standard methods of EN 832 and of ISO DIS 13790 generally give accurate results in calculating the annual heating energy, e.g., in the context of energy design and energy certification. However, the gain utilization factor of these standards is too low for very light buildings having no massive surfaces resulting in a too high energy consumption. The study shows, that the differences in input data cause often greater differences in calculation results than the differences between various calculation and simulation methods.

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    EN 1745 Masonry and masonry products - Methods for determining thermal properties Read more +

  • This European Standard specifies procedures for the determination of thermal properties of masonry and masonry products.

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    EN 1996-1-1 Eurocode 6 - Design of masonry structures - Part 1-1: General rules for reinforced and unreinforced masonry structures Read more +

  • EN 1996 Eurocode 6 applies to the design of buildings and other civil engineering works, or parts thereof, in unreinforced, reinforced, prestressed and confined masonry. The execution is covered to the extent that is necessary to indicate the quality of the construction materials and products that should be used and the standard of workmanship on site needed to comply with the assumptions made in the design rules.

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    EN 1996-1-2 Eurocode 6 - Design of masonry structures - Part 1-2: General rules - Structural fire design Read more +

  • EN 1996 Eurocode 6 applies to the design of buildings and other civil engineering works, or parts thereof, in unreinforced, reinforced, prestressed and confined masonry. The execution is covered to the extent that is necessary to indicate the quality of the construction materials and products that should be used and the standard of workmanship on site needed to comply with the assumptions made in the design rules.

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    EN 14992 Precast concrete products - Wall elements Read more +

  • This European Standard applies to prefabricated walls, made of normal weight or lightweight concrete with dense structure. Also fibre reinforced concrete (steel, polymer or other fibres covered by European standards) may be used. These wall elements may have external wall functions (see 3.11) or not, have facing functions (see 3.12) or not or have a combination of these functions. External wall functions could be: - thermal insulation (see 3.11.1); - sound insulation (see 3.11.2); - hygrometric control (see 3.11.3); or a combination of these. They may be plain, reinforced or prestressed. They may be loadbearing or not. These include: - solid walls; - composite walls; - sandwich walls; - lightened walls; - claddings. The wall element may also work as a column or beam.

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    EN 1992-1-1 Eurocode 2: Design of concrete structures - Part 1-1: General rules and rules for buildings Read more +

  • EN 1992 Eurocode 2 applies to the design of buildings and other civil engineering works in plain, reinforced and prestressed concrete. It complies with the principles and requirements for the safety and serviceability of structures, the basis of their design and verification that are given in EN 1990: Basis of structural design. EN Eurocode 2 is concerned with the requirements for resistance, serviceability, durability and fire resistance of concrete structures.

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    EN 1520 Prefabricated reinforced components of lightweight aggregate concrete with open structure with structural or non-structural reinforcement Read more +

  • This European Standard is for prefabricated components of lightweight aggregate concrete (LAC) with open structure and with structural or non-structural reinforcement intended to be used in building construction a) for structural elements: - loadbearing wall components (solid, hollow core or multilayer); - retaining wall components (solid) with or without surcharge loading; - roof components (solid, hollow core or multilayer); - floor components (solid, hollow core or multilayer); - linear components (beams or piers). b) for non-structural elements: - non-loadbearing wall components (e.g. for partition walls); - cladding components (without fixtures) intended to be used for external facades of buildings; - small box culverts used to form channels for the enclosure of services; - components for noise barriers. NOTE 1 In addition to their loadbearing and encasing function, components can also be used to provide fire resistance, sound insulation and thermal insulation. Components covered by this European Standard are only intended to be subjected to predominantly non-dynamic actions, unless special measures are introduced in the relevant clauses of this European Standard. The term "reinforced" relates to reinforcement used for both structural and non-structural purposes. This European Standard does not cover: - rules for the application of these components in structures; - joints (except their strength); - fixtures; - finishes for external components, such as tiling. NOTE 2 LAC components can be used in noise barriers if they are designed to fulfil also the requirements of EN 14388.

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    EN 13055-1:2002, Lightweight aggregates - Part 1: Lightweight aggregates for concrete, mortar and grout Read more +

  • This European Standard specifies the properties of Lightweight Aggregates (LWA) and fillers derived thereof obtained by processing natural or manufactured materials and mixtures of these aggregates for concrete, mortar and grout, bituminous mixtures and surface treatments and for unbound and hydraulically bound applications in construction works. This European Standard covers LWA of mineral origin having particle densities not exceeding 2000 kg/m3 (2,000 Mg/m3) or loose bulk densities not exceeding 1200 kg/m3 (1,200 Mg/m3) including: a) natural LWA; b) LWA manufactured from natural materials; c) LWA manufactured from by-products of industrial processes or from recycled source materials; d) LWA as by-products of industrial processes. A list of source materials and specific materials, which are within the scope of this standard, is given in Annex A (normative). NOTE Recycled aggregates from construction and demolition waste and Municipal Solid Waste Incinerator Bottom Ash (MIBA) are covered by standards EN 12620, EN 13043, EN 13139 and EN 13242. Some LWA for specific applications are covered in separate European product standards (Annex B, normative). The requirements specified in this standard may not be equally relevant to all types of LWA. For particular applications, the requirements and tolerances can be adapted for the end use.

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    Analysis of the measurement results of apparent sound reduction index (R’W) of lightweight expanded clay party walls Read more +

  • This document is born from the partnership with University of Ferrara and University of Florence and focuses on the behaviour of Expanded Clay blocks for soundproofing party walls in residential buildings. Since 2000, there have been realized about 120 tests of apparent sound reduction index (R’W) on expanded clay party walls in residential buildings. Aim of these measurements was to verify the reliable soundproofing of these walls that fully meets Italian regulatory requirements. These walls are 25 and 30 cm thick, laid with traditional mortar and with plaster on both sides. Excellent results show the reliability of this kind of walls: in 98% of cases the apparent sound reduction index R’W is over 50 dB as requested by Italian regulation for residential buildings.

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    Experimental evaluation of water tightness of single leaf walls Read more +

  • The use of thick single leaf envelope walls can be an interesting solution in some Mediterranean countries like Portugal, as an alternative to the cavity walls. In the single leaf solution the rain watertightness is fundamental. The results of some tests made to evaluate experimentally the rain watertightness of this kind of walls are presented. Ceramic and lightweight concrete units have been used in the walls, which have been rendered. A large chamber have been used to perform the tests. One of the walls has been tested after an accelerated ageing test.

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    Facade sound insulation in external walls with ETICS in expanded polystyrene (EPS) Read more +

  • The document was born from a research on facade sound insulation in external walls with ETICS in expanded polystyrene (EPS) to compare the behaviour of two different kind of masonry: expanded clay blocks wall (30 cm thick) and bricks wall (30 cm thick). On-site tests are made with the same surrounding conditions (shape, geometry, exposure, …) and the same ETICS in EPS. This research shows how external walls in expanded clay blocks have a better sound insulation in facades (difference about 3 dB on-site) than the same wall with bricks. This article also shows some design considerations to highlight the different contribution of the two masonry also with doors and windows.

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    Lightweight concrete for masonry blocks experimental characterization and a proposal of mix design method Read more +

  • The use of infilling masonry units made with expanded clay lightweight concrete is increasing in Portugal. There are not too many studies concerning these specific types of concrete to be used in vibrocompressor system productions. In this paper the results of an experimental study are presented for different lightweight concrete masonry products, with samples obtained on real production conditions. For concrete densities between 850 kg/m3 and 1450 kg/m3, different properties of these types of concrete, like compression and tension strength, modulus of elasticity, shrinkage, water absorption by capillarity and immersion and thermal conductivity are presented and related. A mix design method for these concretes, developed for factories of precast products of lightweight concrete, that allows to define mix proportion and related properties is presented too.

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    Matéria em arquitectura: projectar com a indústria Read more +

  • The project for the rehabilitation and expansion of the School Braamcamp Freire (Pontinha, Lisboa) is part of the national program to modernize High Schools, having started in 2007 under the safeguard action of Parque Escolar, EPE From the construction point of view, the design strategy pointed to the specification of high strength and quality finishing materials, in order to meet the performance requirements implied by the public character of buildings, providing comfort of use and ensuring low maintenance costs. As a result of close collaboration with industry, acoustical block Soundcomfort, existing in standardized production, it was modified in size, the type of particle size and color of their households, and remained its internal geometry - subordinate status to its performance Acoustic. By optimizing these parameters, the new block was applied in different areas and contexts of Braamcamp Freire School, satisfying the sound insulation requirements, adapting to the dimensional constraints of existing buildings and adapting to the public character of spaces, demanding a comfortable surface finish to the touch.

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    Nordic Thermal Mass – Effect on Energy and Indoor Climate Read more +

  • The importance of the thermal performance of buildings has increased due to e.g. the implementation of the Energy Performance Directive of Buildings. In this context energy certification systems of buildings will also require the calculation of energy consumption of buildings in future. The fact that the thermal mass of buildings decreases total energy consumption, is well known, but the amount of this effect depends on many assumptions and values used in the calculations. During this project it has been collected the best available Nordic knowledge around the table to develop a Nordic consensus about the questions studied. It’s important that we have in Nordic countries enough knowledge to be in the forefront in order to get our views included in the European standardisation. The thermal mass of buildings has a clearly positive effect on energy consumption and indoor climate. However, the buildings have to be designed cleverly to be capable to utilise possibilities for smaller energy consumption and better indoor climate. This project was a co-operation project with research institutes of Nordic countries. There were used six different energy calculation software’s, whose results were compared with each other and with one program based on the European standard EN 13790, Thermal performance of buildings - Calculation of energy use for space heating and cooling. The main author of the report and the collector of the results was Timo Kalema from Tampere University of Technology.

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    Seismic analysis of ordinary and reinforced masonry buildings with linear and non – linear static methods Read more +

  • This document is born from the partnership with EUCENTRE of Pavia (European Centre for Training and Research in Earthquake Engineering) and focuses on seismic analysis of some types of residential buildings with load-bearing masonry in expanded clay blocks. Here are evaluated the performances given from expanded clay blocks solutions with two methods of analysis (linear and non – linear static methods). The document also focuses on the comparison between ordinary load bearing masonry and reinforced load bearing masonry.

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    EN 13813:2002 Screed material and floor screeds - Screed material - Properties and requirements Read more +

  • It defines for fresh screed material the performance related to working time, consistency, pH value and for hardened screed material, compressive strength, flexural strength, wear resistance, surface hardness, resistance to uindentation, resistance to rolling wheel, shrinkage and swelling, modulus of elasticity and bond strength. It provides for the evaluation of conformity of the product to this draft European standard. The marking requirements for products covered by this draft European standard are included. This standard covers screed materials as defined in prEN 13318.

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    EN 13318:2000 Screed material and floor screeds Read more +

  • This European Standard defines terms, which are used in the production and application of screed material and floor screeds. The terms are valid for all standards prepared by TC 303.

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    EN ISO 13370:2017 Thermal performance of buildings - Heat transfer via the ground - Calculation methods Read more +

  • This standard provides methods of calculation of heat transfer coefficients and heat flow rates for building elements in thermal contact with the ground, including slab‐on‐ground floors, suspended floors and basements. It applies to building elements, or parts of them, below a horizontal plane in the bounding walls of the building situated - at the level of the inside floor surface, for slab‐on‐ground floors, suspended floors and unheated basements; NOTE 1 In some cases, external dimension systems define the boundary at the lower surface of the floor slab. - at the level of the external ground surface, for heated basements. ISO 13370:2017 includes calculation of the steady‐state part of the heat transfer (the annual average rate of heat flow) and the part due to annual periodic variations in temperature (the seasonal variations of the heat flow rate about the annual average). These seasonal variations are obtained on a monthly basis and, except for the application to dynamic simulation programmes in Annex D, ISO 13370:2017 does not apply to shorter periods of time. NOTE 2 Table 1 in the Introduction shows the relative position of ISO 13370:2017 within the set of EPB standards in the context of the modular structure as set out in ISO 52000-1.

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    EN 14063-1:2004 Thermal insulation products for buildings - In-situ formed expanded clay lightweight aggregate products - Part 1: specification for the loose-fill products before installation Read more +

  • This European Standard specifies the requirements for loose-fill expanded clay lightweight aggregate products for in-situ installation in roofs, ceilings, floors and ground floors. This Part 1 of the standard is a specification for the insulation products before installation. This Part 1 of the standard also describes the product characteristics and includes procedures for testing, marking and labelling. This standard does not specify the required level of a given property to be achieved by a product to demonstrate fitness for purpose in a particular application. The levels required for a given application are to be found in regulations or non-conflicting standards. This standard does not specify performance requirements for airborne sound insulation and for acoustic absorption applications.

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    EN 14063-2:2013 Thermal insulation products for buildings - In-situ formed expanded clay lightweight aggregate products - Part 2: Specification for the installed products Read more +

  • This European Standard specifies the requirements for loose-fill expanded clay lightweight aggregate (LWA) products installed in roofs, ceilings, floors and ground floors. This Part 2 is a specification for the installed product. Part 2 of this European Standard describes, when taken together with Part 1, the product characteristics that are linked to the essential requirements of the EU Construction Products Directive. Part 2 also specifies the checks and tests to be used for the declarations made by the installer of the product. Part 2 of this European Standard does not specify the required level of a given property to be achieved by a product to demonstrate fitness for purpose in a particular application. The levels required for a given application are to be found in national regulations or non conflicting standards. This European Standard does not cover factory made expanded clay lightweight aggregate products or in-situ products intended to be used for the insulation of building equipment and industrial installations. This European Standard does not specify performance requirements for airborne sound insulation and for acoustic absorption applications

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    EN 1992-1-1:2004 Eurocode 2 Read more +

  • Part 1-2 of EN 1992 deals with the design of concrete structures for the accidental situation of fire exposure. It only identifies differences from, or supplements to, normal temperature design and deals only with passive methods of fire protection. Active methods are not covered. Rthe Eurocode applies to concrete structures that are required to fulfil certain functions when exposed to fire, in terms of avoiding premature collapse of the structure (load bearing function); limiting fire spread (flame, hot gases, excessive heat) beyond designated areas (separating function). It also gives principles and application rules for designing structures for specified requirements in respect of the aforementioned functions and the levels of performance. It applies to structures, or parts of structures, that are within the scope of EN 1992-1-1 and are designed accordingly. The methods given in this Part 1-2 of EN 1992 are applicable to normal weight concrete up to strength class C90/105 and for lightweight concrete up to strength class LC55/60.

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    EN 12620:2002+A1:2008 / Aggregates for concrete Read more +

  • This European Standard specifies the properties of aggregates and filler aggregates obtained by processing natural, manufactured or recycled materials and mixtures of these aggregates for use in concrete. It covers aggregates having an oven dried particle density greater than 2,00 Mg/m3 (2 000 kg/m3) for all concrete, including concrete in conformity with EN 206-1 and concrete used in roads and other pavements and for use in precast concrete products. It also covers recycled aggregate with densities between 1,50 Mg/m3 (1 500 kg/m3) and 2,00 Mg/m3 (2 000 kg/m3) with appropriate caveats and recycled fine aggregate (4 mm) with appropriate caveats." It also specifies that a quality control system is in place for use in factory production control and it provides for the evaluation of conformity of the products to this European Standard. This standard does not cover filler aggregates to be used as a constituent in cement or as other than inert filler aggregates for concrete. NOTE 1 Aggregates used in construction should comply with all the requirements of this European Standard. As well as familiar and traditional natural and manufactured aggregates Mandate M/125 "Aggregates" included recycled aggregates and some materials from new or unfamiliar sources. Recycled aggregates are included in the standards and new test methods for them are at an advanced stage of preparation. For unfamiliar materials from secondary sources, however, the work on standardisation has only started recently and more time is needed to define clearly the origins and characteristics of these materials. In the meantime such unfamiliar materials when placed on the market as aggregates must comply fully with this standard and national regulations for dangerous substances (see Annex ZA of the standard) depending upon their intended use. Additional characteristics and requirements may be specified on a case by case basis depending upon experience of use of the product, and defined in specific co

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    Calcestruzzo leggero strutturale di argilla espansa (IT) Read more +

  • LIGHTWEIGHT AGGREGATE CONCRETE WITH EXPANDED CLAY

    This technical handbook is intended to provide the tools for lightweight aggregate concrete in accordance with the current national and European regulations (D.M. 14/1/2008, CIRCOLARE n°617 – 2009, EC2).
    The technical handbook is divided into two parts:

    - LWAC Guidelines for Materials, Technologies and Design Criteria;

    - Examples of some applications in the use of LWAC (RC beam, strengthening of existing floor slabs), as well as various indications regarding concrete mix design and executive aspects.

    The text is primarily addressed to designers by providing them all the elements needed for design, highlighting only differences in the use and characteristics of ordinary concrete.

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    Il comportamento sismico di strutture Calcestruzzo leggero (IT) Read more +

  • SEISMIC BEHAVIOUR OF STRUCTURES WITH LIGHTWEIGHT AGGREGATE CONCRETE

    The purpose of this research is to highlight the seismic behavior of concrete structures with lightweight aggregates of expanded clay, directly against the same structures but made up of ordinary concrete.
    Following an introductory part in which the main research carried out in the past on the behavior of lightweight structural concrete in the seismic area (comparisons between different approaches to regulation) has been recalled:

    - Seismic design of a new moment resisting frame in Reinforced Concrete with 6 multi – stories structure in both light and ordinary structural concrete, following the requirements of Eurocode 2 and 8 and according to various seismic design action;

    - Strengthening of wooden floor slab in existing masonry buildings through the creation of a composite section of the elements, which also acts as a rigid diaphragm, both in light and ordinary structural concrete, with specific attention to the effects on the overall seismic behavior of the building.

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    Die Renaissance leichter Betone in der Archite (DE) Read more +

  • This German article highlights how lightweight concrete combines lightness, strength, and thermal insulation. Due to its low bulk density and the resulting low weight, concrete made with expanded clay can be used in a variety of building applications, with the added bonus of resistance to extreme weather conditions, and an overall excellent level of insulation. The high quality and design of buildings made of lightweight concrete with expanded clay is shown through numerous examples, including private houses, but also public and industrial buildings such as the Land- und Amtsgericht in Frankfurt / Oder by Bumiller & Junkers Architekten.

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    Die Renaissance leichter Betone in der Archite 2 (DE) Read more +

  • This German article by prof. Christian Thienel traces back the history of lightweight concrete, and highlights its characteristics of lightness, strenght, durability and thermal insulation. It provides examples and pictures of buildings using expanded clay lightweight concrete in America and Europe

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    Heavy Lifter Beton (DE) Read more +

  • The Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment of the North-East Atlantic (the ‘OSPAR Convention') entered into force in 1998. One key element of the Convention is the targeted dismantling of offshore steel platforms. In order to comply with the Convention- in the North Sea there are 700 platforms - several consortia concepts were developed for the dismantling of the platforms. A consortium had the idea of ​​developing a robust and cost-effective demounting platform, which should use the Archimedian principle for vertical lifting. This MPU Heavy Lifter consists of a cellular U-shaped float of lightweight concrete, each with a light-weight tower at the four corners. The lightweight concrete represents a challenge to the concrete manufacturers due to the low concrete density and the use of light sand. The contribution describes the basic principles for design and dimensioning, the required concreting properties, the extensive test program with its results and the construction.

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    FLL Guidelines Read more +

  • The FLL has been implementing regulations for 40 years in Germany. Today the FLL is composed of more than 60 interdisciplinary working groups, issuing Guidelines, recommendations for action and expert reports.

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    Expanded Clay In Green Applications Read more +

  • Expanded clay aggregate is used in landscape restoration around our parks and the green areas surrounding urban developments. Green roof gardens act as a buffer for rainwater, which seeps slowly through the layers reducing the surge water caused by heavy rainfall. This also allows time for water evaporation, hence further reducing pressure on urban drainage systems and providing green urban areas for the Its ability to absorb gases and dust particles helps the recovery of air humidity levels in the atmosphere and improves air quality. Extensive use is made of expanded clay in drainage and water management projects and the unique structure of the aggregate systems. Leisure uses include foundations for sport surfaces and run off safety areas for motor sports. It is used in agriculture and horticulture as a growing medium for plants and even processing waste farm slurries.

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    EN 12566-3:2016 / Small wastewater treatment systems for up to 50 PT - Part 3: Packaged and/or site assembled domestic wastewater treatment plants Read more +

  • This European Standard specifies requirements, test methods, the marking and factory production control for packaged and/or site assembled domestic wastewater treatment plants (including guest houses and businesses) used for populations up to 50 inhabitants. Small wastewater treatment plants according to tis Standard are used for the treatment of raw domestic wastewater.

    This part covers plants with tanks made of concrete, Glass Reinforced Plastic (GRP), Polyethylène (PE), steel.

    The test methods specified in this standard establish the performance of the plant, needed to verify its suitability for the end use.

    This standard applies to plants which are considered as a treatment plant if all prefabricated components are factory or site-assembled by one manufacturer and which aretested as a whole.

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    EN 15732:2012 / CEN/TC 88 - Thermal insulating materials and products Read more +

  • This standard describes the product characteristics and includes procedures for testing, marking and labelling. This European Standard specifies the requirements for loose-fill expanded clay lightweight aggregate (expanded clay LWA) products for Civil Engineering Applications excluding the use as thermal insulation in and under buildings which are covered by EN 14063-1. The standard covers the use of expanded clay LWA as lightweight fill and insulation materials in embankments for roads, railways and other trafficked areas and as lightweight backfill for structures. This standard does not specify the required level of a given property to be achieved by a product to demonstrate fitness for purpose in a particular application. The levels required for a given application are to be found in regulations or non-conflicting standards.

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    EN 14904:2006 / Surfaces for sports areas - Indoor surfaces for multi-sports use - Specification Read more +

  • This European Standard specifies requirements for surfaces for indoor facilities for multi-sports use. It also covers surface systems which include both their supporting and upper layers whether prefabricated, produced in situ or a combination of the two. It also provides for the evaluation of conformity of products to the requirements of this European Standard. This European Standard is not applicable to indoor tennis halls. NOTE "Multi-sports" will be defined by appropriate national provisions.

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    Building our future with expanded clay – EXCA sustainability brochure Read more +

  • The European expanded clay industry has embraced the principles of sustainable development. Expanded clay is a well-proven, high quality, efficient and competitive construction material that can be used anywhere. It is sustainable and packed with properties that improve the economic, social and environmental performance of a building or infrastructure over its whole lifetime. Expanded clay is produced with the maximum care for employees, environment, climate, neighbours and local communities. The industry is committed to continuously reduce the impact from the production and to develop the properties and applications of expanded clay to improve the sustainability contribution.

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    Expanded clay sustainable use everywhere Read more +

  • Expanded clay, an unique lightweight aggregate with versatile applications. The only "all in one" aggregate with sustainable use "everywhere". Due to its unique characteristics, expanded clay has broad range of applications "everywhere", like in the housing, infrastructure and green projects. For each of the applications expanded clay will bring a number of benefits as illustrated in this brochure.

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    Expanded clay LWA in CEA: Lightweight fill and thermal insulation products for civil engineering applications. Installation and structural quality control on site. Read more +

  • This Technical report was prepared by EXCA, the European Expanded Clay Association, in 2007 and revised in 2015. The goal and purpose has been to present the current best practice and recommendations on the European level concerning proper construction works and in-situ quality control to ensure a correct and proper execution of civil engineering applications of Expanded Clay lightweight aggregates. The basic material properties shall be documented and declared according to EN 15732 Light weight fill and thermal insulation products for civil engineering applications (CEA). Expanded clay lightweight aggregate products (LWA). This technical report is acknowledged by all the major partners in the European Expanded Clay industry, and thus should be considered as a recommendation from the industry. This report provides general recommendations prepared by the EXCA-industry and has no legal status. National standards, recommendations, instructions and guidance given in the specific projects have to be followed.

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    EN 14063-2:2013, Thermal insulation products for buildings - In-situ formed expanded clay lightweight aggregate products - Part 2: Specification for the installed products. Read more +

  • This European Standard specifies the requirements for loose-fill expanded clay lightweight aggregate (LWA) products installed in roofs, ceilings, floors and ground floors. This Part 2 is a specification for the installed product. Part 2 of this European Standard describes, when taken together with Part 1, the product characteristics that are linked to the essential requirements of the EU Construction Products Directive. Part 2 also specifies the checks and tests to be used for the declarations made by the installer of the product. Part 2 of this European Standard does not specify the required level of a given property to be achieved by a product to demonstrate fitness for purpose in a particular application. The levels required for a given application are to be found in national regulations or non conflicting standards. This European Standard does not cover factory made expanded clay lightweight aggregate products or in-situ products intended to be used for the insulation of building equipment and industrial installations. This European Standard does not specify performance requirements for airborne sound insulation and for acoustic absorption applications.

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    EN 14063-1:2004, Thermal insulation products for buildings - In-situ formed expanded clay lightweight aggregate products - Part 1: Specification for the loose-fill products before installation. Read more +

  • This European Standard specifies the requirements for loose-fill expanded clay lightweight aggregate products for in-situ installation in roofs, ceilings, floors and ground floors. This Part 1 of the standard is a specification for the insulation products before installation. This Part 1 of the standard also describes the product characteristics and includes procedures for testing, marking and labelling. This standard does not specify the required level of a given property to be achieved by a product to demonstrate fitness for purpose in a particular application. The levels required for a given application are to be found in regulations or non-conflicting standards. This standard does not specify performance requirements for airborne sound insulation and for acoustic absorption applications.

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    EN 1997-1:2004, Eurocode 7: Geotechnical design - Part 1: General rules. Read more +

  • EN 1997 Eurocode 7 shall be applied to the geotechnical aspects OF the design of buildings and other civil engineering works and shall be used in conjunction with EN 1990:2002 that establishes the principles and requirements for safety and serviceability, describes the basis of design and verification and gives guidelines for related aspects of structural reliability. Numerical values of actions on buildings and other civil engineering works to be taken into account in design are provided in EN 1991 for the various types of construction, whereas actions imposed by the ground, such as earth pressures and by ground water, shall be calculated according to the rules of EN 1997. Separate European Standards shall be used to treat matters of execution and workmanship. In EN 1997 execution is covered to the extent that is necessary to comply with the assumptions of the design rules. EN 1997 does not cover the special requirements of seismic design. EN 1998 provides additional rules for geotechnical seismic design, which complete or adapt the rules of this Standard.

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    EN 1997-2:2007, Eurocode 7: Geotechnical design - Part 2: Ground investigation and testing. Read more +

  • EN 1997 Eurocode 7 shall be applied to the geotechnical aspects OF the design of buildings and other civil engineering works and shall be used in conjunction with EN 1990:2002 that establishes the principles and requirements for safety and serviceability, describes the basis of design and verification and gives guidelines for related aspects of structural reliability. Numerical values of actions on buildings and other civil engineering works to be taken into account in design are provided in EN 1991 for the various types of construction, whereas actions imposed by the ground, such as earth pressures and by ground water, shall be calculated according to the rules of EN 1997. Separate European Standards shall be used to treat matters of execution and workmanship. In EN 1997 execution is covered to the extent that is necessary to comply with the assumptions of the design rules. EN 1997 does not cover the special requirements of seismic design. EN 1998 provides additional rules for geotechnical seismic design, which complete or adapt the rules of this Standard.

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    Calibration of the comprimeter for compaction control Read more +

  • Saint-Gobain Weber Portugal, S.A. and the National Laboratory for Civil Engineering (Laboratório Nacional de Engenharia Civil - LNEC) in cooperation with the Instituto Superior Técnico (IST), signed a protocol, in 18th of March of 2010, aiming the study of a control method of the construction of embankments with light expanded clay aggregates. A set of checking and calibration tests, at the laboratory, using the comprimeter, was defined for the evaluation of the compaction conditions of theses materials. This document presents the preparations conditions, the results and interpretation of the tests after the conclusion of the experimental program at the laboratory.

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    Geotechnical applications and mechanical characterization of expanded clay (in Italian). Read more +

  • This manual has been developed to give the geotechnical designer all the information necessary to design lightweight embankments with expanded clay. The first two chapters analyze the geotechnical characteristics of expanded clay; chapter 3 develops in detail the design of embankments on soft soil and sliding slopes lightened with expanded clay; the fourth chapter analyze the installation procedures and problems and finally the fifth and final chapter describe the methods to verify and test the quality standards of the instalment of the lightweight embankment.

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    LWA for roads and railways, Internordic research and development project Read more +

  • LWA geolight is an internordic project aiming at developing technical solutions for the use of light weight clay aggregate (LWA) for insulation and light weight fill in roads and railways. The project is performed with financial support from Nordic Industrial Fund. The project has been organised with national activities in Finland, Sweden and Norway on the topics LWA in combination with geosynthetic reinforcment, hydraulically stabilised LWA and mechanically stabilised LWA. Internordic working groups have been established on the topics surface icing, required properties and test methods, publication and implementation of results in CEN. The project includes laboratory testing, numerical analyses, model tests and field tests. It has provided data on characteristics of LWA, structural behaviour and relevant factors for the construction with LWA. A separat Nordtest project on required properties has been performed in close co-operation with the LWAgeolight project. The conclusions are incorporated and are also forwarded as basis for a new work item in CEN.

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    Seismic response of light embankments on soft soils (in Italian). Read more +

  • In the presence of layers of very unstable ground, characterized by high thicknesses, it is now common practice to build lightweight road embankments and / or compensate them by using expanded clay. This technique is used to reduce sagging, that is often experienced while carrying out the works, increasing the durability and reducing maintenance costs. This article will take into consideration the seismic response of compensated embankments and will discuss the factors that most influence it. We will use three different approaches: (i) the pseudo-static, (ii) the displacement method and (iii) it will also critically discuss the results of numerical analysis’ carried out by using a finite difference computer program.

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    Verification of gravity retaining walls in accordance with the seismic legislation (in Italian). Read more +

  • The geotechnical engineer is often looking for safety solutions for gravity retaining walls that are already in place, while also respecting the current seismic regulation (NTC 2008). The article demonstrates how the replacement of part of the backfill material with expanded clay, can be a winning solution. By using expanded clay we can reduce the pressure that the ground exerts on the retaining wall, prevents the build-up of pressure caused by water and allows structural verification even if the work is carried out in areas of high seismicity, as it significantly reduces the pseudo-static pressure. This one, in case of an earthquake, would load on the structure.

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